It’s probably not news to you, but folks behind the PostgreSQL Database have made an incredible piece of software. It’s fast, it can handle loads of data, and it has interesting builtin functions and index types for almost anything you might need. For this post, though, I’d like to highlight how it facilitates DB maintenance tasks by eating its own dog food—that is, how answering questions about the database is no different from running regular SQL queries.
At work, we’ve got a fair amount of data. I’m
charged with the care and feeding of a couple of these databases, one of which
recently got a huge upgrade of incoming data. Previously it contained
our data vendor’s restricted version of US-and-Canada-only data; we switched to
When we (I) created our DB schema, we relied heavily upon materialized views; the thought was we’d keep the incoming raw data in tables, perform some DB-level ETL work, then put the main data we wish to use into tidy, consolidated materialized views. This design made sense given what we thought our paradigm was going to be: we were expecting
- raw data that needed extensive work before being suitable for processing, and
- we would receive small incremental updates of that data frequently from our vendor, so we could
UPDATEthe raw tables and
REFRESHthe materialized views to stay up to date.
However, this is decidedly not the paradigm in which we find ourselves. The raw data is almost ready for our ML algorithms to grab, modulo some normalizations, and instead of frequent small updates we receive quarterly dumps of the entire database. This led to a lot of waste, but there was one particular pain point: because we used materialized views, when our intrepid Ops team copied the DB over to other environments (e.g. stage & prod), they had to rebuild every index on the materialized views—unlike a table index, an index on a materialized view doesn’t copy over.
I had a strong suspicion that we didn’t need every index we were copying over; over half are obsolete artifacts of query patterns we no longer used. I thought of combing through our Scala monolith to find every time we accessed these materialized views via Slick, but calling that error-prone would be an understatement. Part of the appeal of Slick is that it turns normal-looking Scala code into SQL queries for you, but that means you need to translate it—either in code by, say, debug logging the query statements or in your head—to fully understand what it’s doing with your DB.
It’s tables all the way down
Luckily, the PostgreSQL devs have made answering these types of questions manageable. One answers questions about PostgreSQL by, well, querying PostgreSQL. There are a bevy of system catalogs and collected statistics views chock-full of helpful information.
Trimming down an example query from the wiki page on index maintenance, I ran the following to get the names, table names, and human-readable sizes of the indexes that were
- public (
d.schemaname = 'public'), meaning we made them,
- not unique (
not a.indisunique), so they’re not primary keys1, and
- never scanned (
d.idx_scan = 0), so they’re unused:
select c.relname as index_name, b.relname as table_name, pg_size_pretty(pg_relation_size( quote_ident(d.schemaname) || '.' || quote_ident(d.indexrelname) )) as index_size from pg_index a join pg_class b on b.oid = a.indrelid join pg_class c on c.oid = a.indexrelid join pg_stat_all_indexes d on a.indexrelid = d.indexrelid where d.schemaname = 'public' and not a.indisunique and d.idx_scan = 0 order by table_name, index_name;
When run, this query immediately returns something like2
| index_name | table_name | index_size | |----------------|----------------|----------------| | unused_idx | a_table | 1.81 GB | | also_bad | another_tbl | 77 MB |
With this helpful query in hand, I knew exactly which indexes we could safely delete and how much memory we’d save the database by doing so.